Empirical and observational studies of animal cognition will truly benefit if different behavioural manifestations of higher cognitive processes can be defined functionally. This is vitally important because, when studying animals, cognition has to necessarily manifest in behaviour for it to be tractable, and the performance of such behaviour, in turn, needs to be unambiguously ascribed to an effect of particular cognitive processes. There are several theoretical frameworks to investigate cognition in animals in terms of mentalistic notions, including that of the intentional stance, which assumes that each individual is an intentional system capable of mental states like beliefs, desires and emotions.
Physics In the history of physical sciences too, conceptual barrier problems similar to 'hard problem' exist such as emission of radiation by fast moving charged particles, emission of alpha particles by radioactive nuclei, or creation of new particles in high energy collisions could not be explained within the framework of classical physics and for which quantum mechanics had to be brought in. Read More
The focus on the concept of the self follows three research goals: (a) the place of the self in self-brain interrelations with focus on the phenomenology of the body and emotions, (b) distinguishing the sense of the self from the body-sense, and how subjectivity is centred in body concepts, and (c) the comparative study of self and wellbeing with focus on social, psychological and cultural contexts.